Animal models are indispensible in biomedical research because of their essential role in verification of hypotheses, investigation of signaling pathways, screening of novel compounds and determination of drug targets, and functional genomics for development of biomarkers. Mammalian models have been the gold standards and are the most obvious choices. However, despite being closest to humans, the mammalian models have certain demerits, most important being the ethical concerns and the cost factors. In recent years, the field of biomedical research has seen an upward surge in the use of alternative animal models (lower vertebrates and invertebrates) by the scientists and researchers to limit/avoid the use of mammalian models. Since last two decades, several non-mammalian models such as Danio rerio (zebrafish), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) and Caenorhabditis elegans (worm) have found tremendous applications in various aspects of biomedical research such functional genomics, disease modeling, pharmacology and toxicology. This meeting is being organized with the objective of exploring the current progress and future challenges of use of non-mammalian models in biomedical research by bringing in experts from India and Japan under one platform.